Unani system of Medicine or Unanipathy originated long back in Greece. It has its origin in the 4-5th century before Christ under the patronage of Hippocrates (377-460 BC) and Galen. Although the Unani System originated in Greece & passed through many countries, Arabs enriched it with their own aptitude and experience. Among them Abu Sina, an Arab philosopher and Physicist who wrote 'Kitab-al-shifa' or 'Avicenna' was noteworthy. This system earlier known as ‘Galenic’, later became Unani (Arabic name for Greek) system of medicine. The system was brought to India during the Medieval period.
Due to its mass acceptance and continuous use by the people, in course of time, it has become native to India and is in great demand among people of certain States. This system has a long and impressive record in India. It was introduced in India around 10th century A.D with the spread of Islamic civilization. Now Unanipathy has become a part of Indian system of Medicine and India is one of the leading countries so far as its practice is concerned.
According to Unani system disease is a natural process and that symptoms are the reactions of the body to the disease. It believes in the humeral theory which presupposes the presence of 4 humors -Dam (blood), Balgham (phlegm), Safra( Yellow bile) and Sauda (black bile) in the body. Each humour has its own temperament - blood is hot and moist, phlegm cold and moist, yellow bile hot and dry and black bile cold and dry.
A state of equilibrium amongst all the 4 humors is the fundamental characteristic for maintenance of sound health and any disturbance in their equilibrium brings about a change in the Status of health of human body.
The diagnosis of diseases in Unani system of medicine is through examination of pulse, urine and stool.
This system observes the influence of surroundings and ecological conditions such as air, food, drinks, body movement and repose, psychic movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness and excretion and retention on the state of health. This influence causes a dominance of one of the four humours in every human body. Unani believes that it is this dominance which gives a man his individual habit and complexion i.e his temperament. In short, Unanipathy aims at maintaining proper health by conserving symmetry in the different spheres of a man's life.
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